In the realm of Large Language Models (LLMs) like Julius, one of the most effective strategies for optimizing interactions is through the creation of Workflows. These structured sequences of actions not only streamline tasks but also harness the full capabilities of LLMs, particularly when these actions are repeatable and can benefit from automation. This discussion goes into how such workflows can be applied to A/B testing, a fundamental statistical method, thereby transforming Julius into a powerful tool for data analysis automation.
Introduction to Workflows
A Workflow represents a sequence of steps designed to achieve a specific outcome. In the context of LLMs like Julius, workflows are particularly potent. They provide a framework within which Julius can operate more efficiently, performing tasks in a manner akin to automation. This concept is especially relevant when dealing with repetitive tasks that involve data analysis, such as A/B testing.
The Concept of A/B Testing in Workflows
A/B testing, a staple in statistical analysis, often necessitates a series of repetitive tasks: data loading, cleaning, testing, and result interpretation. Typically, these steps involve substantial manual effort, from code writing to decisionmaking regarding the appropriate statistical tests. However, by encapsulating these actions within a workflow, Julius can significantly reduce the manual workload, effectively automating the process.
Prerequisites: It’s crucial to acknowledge that successful application of A/B testing workflows requires adherence to fundamental statistical assumptions, such as the randomness and independence of observations.
Building an A/B Testing Workflow with Julius
The journey of constructing an A/B testing workflow entails several distinct steps, all of which were built simply by talking to Julius:

Data Importation: Utilize Julius’s capability to load datasets without prior knowledge of column names or data formats. This step leverages LLM reasoning, transcending simple automation.

Test Type Determination : Automate the identification of the appropriate statistical test (Proportions Test or Means Test) based on the nature of the outcome column. This is achievable through a predefined Python function.
and this is the Python that Julius wrote:
def determine_test_type(df):
# Check if the outcome column contains only 0s and 1s or True and False values
if df['outcome'].nunique() <= 2 and df['outcome'].dropna().apply(lambda x: x in [0, 1, True, False]).all():
return "Proportions Test"
# Check if the outcome column contains continuous values
elif pd.api.types.is_numeric_dtype(df['outcome']):
return "Means Test"
else:
return "Cannot determine test type"
# Call the function with the clean dataset
test_type = determine_test_type(df)
print(test_type)

Sample Size Validation : Ensure the sample size is adequate for the selected statistical test, a critical step for test validity.

A/B Test Execution : Conduct the A/B test, assuming the dataset passes all preliminary checks.

Workflow Compilation : Combine all components into a comprehensive workflow, presented as a markdown file for reuse in future analyses.
# Workflow for A/B testing
# Step 1: Load a random dataset
#  Load the dataset from a file or generate random data
# Step 2: Extract the group label column and the outcome column
#  Identify the columns representing the test groups (control vs experiment, A vs B) and the outcome of interest
# Step 3: Data Cleaning
#  If the outcome column contains 0s and 1s, no further action is needed
#  If the outcome column contains True/False values, convert them to integers (0 for False, 1 for True)
#  If the outcome column contains continuous values, convert them to numeric
# Step 4: Rename Columns
#  Name the group label column as 'test_group' and the outcome column as 'outcome'
# Step 5: Determine Test Type Function
def determine_test_type(df):
# Check if the outcome column contains only 0s and 1s or True and False values
if df['outcome'].nunique() <= 2 and df['outcome'].dropna().apply(lambda x: x in [0, 1, True, False]).all():
return "Proportions Test"
# Check if the outcome column contains continuous values
elif pd.api.types.is_numeric_dtype(df['outcome']):
return "Means Test"
else:
return "Cannot determine test type"
# Step 6: Sample Size Function
def check_sample_size(test_type, df):
# Get the group sizes
group_sizes = df.groupby('test_group')['outcome'].count()
# Check for proportions test
if test_type == "Proportions Test":
n = group_sizes.min()
p = df['outcome'].mean()
if n*p >= 5 and n*(1p) >= 5:
return "Sample size is sufficient for proportions test"
else:
return "Sample size is insufficient for proportions test"
# Check for means test
elif test_type == "Means Test":
if group_sizes.min() >= 30:
return "Sample size is sufficient for means test"
else:
return "Sample size is insufficient for means test"
else:
return "Invalid test type"
# Step 7: A/B Test Function
def run_ab_test(test_type, df):
control = df[df['test_group'] == 'control']['outcome']
experiment = df[df['test_group'] == 'experiment']['outcome']
if test_type == "Proportions Test":
count = experiment.sum()
nobs = len(experiment)
stat, pval = proportion.proportions_ztest(count, nobs, value=control.mean())
return pval
elif test_type == "Means Test":
stat, pval = stats.ttest_ind(control, experiment)
return pval
else:
return "Invalid test type"
# Step 8: Interpret Results
#  After running the A/B test, interpret the results based on the pvalue and any other relevant metrics
# Call the functions in sequence to perform the A/B test
test_type = determine_test_type(df)
sample_size_check = check_sample_size(test_type, df)
test_result = run_ab_test(test_type, df)
This workflow, once established, can be easily applied to new datasets, demonstrating Julius’s capacity to facilitate data analysis through automation. The efficacy of this approach was validated through practical application on a sample dataset, showcasing the workflow’s potential for reuse and adaptability to different scenarios.
and validated once again in a new conversation, to make sure it wasn’t primed for understanding what was asked for by the conversation history and that it could get just the steps and run a test without much intervention:
You can find this dataset on Kaggle, as well.
Note: This last workflow run incorrectly determined the test type as a means test rather than a proportions test, but that’s okay for me because I mostly wanted to demonstrate how quickly I can develop a semifunctioning workflow on a technical subject. I am now free to spend future conversations with Julius on optimizing and debugging this workflow.
Extending the Workflow
The versatility of Julius allows for endless customization and extension of the initial workflow. Potential enhancements could include:
 Detailed logging of intermediate steps.
 Incorporation of variance homogeneity checks for means tests.
 Flexibility in selecting hypothesis test types (twosided, lefttailed, righttailed).
 Compilation of test results into a comprehensive dataframe.
These possibilities highlight the dynamic nature of workflows in Julius, enabling users to tailor the tool to their specific needs.
Conclusion
Workflows represent a paradigm shift in utilizing Large Language Models for data analysis. By embodying a series of predefined steps and automatable functions, workflows like the one outlined for A/B testing not only streamline analytical processes but also unlock new potentials for efficiency and accuracy in data science. In essence, through the creation and application of workflows, Julius transcends its role as a mere analytical tool, becoming a cornerstone of automated data analysis.